Patient Education

Orthopedic Medical Center would like to be your partner in health care. Feel free to ask your questions and share your concerns with us. We will work with you to develop a wellness program for the care and treatment you need.

We welcome you to our practice and look forward to caring for you.

Orthopedic Medical Center provides a full range of medical services including the following:


Ankle Fracture

An ankle fracture, commonly known as a broken ankle, involves any type of break or crack in the tibia, fibula, or talus. Common causes of an ankle fracture may include a sports injury, a motor vehicle accident or a fall. An ankle fracture can include injury to one or more of the bones that make up the ankle joint. The more bones that are broken, the more complicated and severe the fracture is. Treatment for a broken ankle depends on the type and severity of the individual fracture, but may include wearing a cast or brace, applying ice and taking anti-inflammatory medication. Stable fractures can usually heal on their own within a few weeks, while more complicated ones may require surgery to reposition the broken bone. ...


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Osteopenia

Osteopenia is a condition characterized by low bone mass. Although not as low as osteoporosis, osteopenia is the result of a loss of calcium and minerals from the bones. If too many minerals are lost, bones become more porous, brittle and considerably weak. Individuals with osteopenia usually do not experience any symptoms, however they may be at risk for eventually developing osteoporosis and may have a have a higher risk of bone fractures. Osteopenia becomes more common as people age, and women are more likely to develop osteopenia than men. ...


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Bunions

A bunion (hallux valgus ) is a common foot problem in which an abnormal bony bump develops at the joint of the big toe, causing the joint to swell outward and become painful. As a result of the enlarged joint, the big toe may become stiff and turn inward. The more deformed the joint becomes, the more it can lead to difficulty walking and to the development of ingrown toenails, corns and calluses. Although bunions are not usually a serious condition, they can be painful and unsightly. Left untreated, they will usually grow larger and more painful over time. ...


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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

The carpal tunnel is a narrow, fibrous passage in the wrist that protects the median nerve, which runs down the length of arm and through the wrist into the hand. It controls some hand movement, and sensation in the thumb, index and middle fingers, and half of the ring finger. Irritation or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel can cause tingling and numbness in the fingers, a condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). ...


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Facet-Joint Injections

Facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool for determining whether facet-joint inflammation is a source of pain. Four facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered into either the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting steroid and a local anesthetic. ...


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Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that causes symptoms of arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis affects the lining of the joints, causing pain, stiffness, and swelling. It may also affect other organs of the body including the heart, lungs and blood vessels. Rheumatoid arthritis is more common in women than men and it usually develops in individuals over the age of 40. Treatment focuses on controlling symptoms and preventing joint damage, and commonly includes medication to suppress the immune system and reduce pain and inflammation. ...


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Shoulder Instability

Shoulder instability is a condition characterized by a loose shoulder joint, caused by weakened and stretched surrounding muscles and ligaments. This may become a chronic condition after a dislocation, which occurs when the ball of the upper arm bone comes out of the socket. Chronic instability may produce frequent slipping, or partial dislocation, known as subluxation. ...


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De Quervain's Tenosynovitis

De Quervain's tenosynovitis is an inflammation of the two tendons that run from the back of thumb and down the side of the wrist. The causes of De Quervain's tenosynovitis are unknown, but it has been linked to wrist injury, overuse/repetitive motion, pregnancy and inflammatory arthritis. It is much more common in women than in men, and in people who have diabetes or arthritis. The disease was first identified in 1895 by Fritz de Quervain, after whom it is named. ...


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Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, sometimes referred to as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is an autoimmune disorder that causes symptoms of arthritis in children. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis affects the lining of the joints and commonly affects children under the age of 16, causing pain, stiffness and swelling in the joints. Symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis may come and go, and may last for a short time or for years. This condition may lead to growth problems and eye inflammation in some children. ...


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Knee Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that allows doctors to examine tissues inside the knee. During an arthroscopic procedure, a device known as an arthroscope is inserted into a small incision in the knee. Through this tube, a thin fiberoptic light, magnifying lens and tiny video camera are inserted, allowing the doctor to examine the joint in great detail. Arthroscopy may be a diagnostic procedure following a physical examination and imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans or X-rays. It may also be used as a method of treatment to repair small injuries in the knee. ...


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Orthotics

Orthotics are shoe inserts designed to correct the way the foot moves while standing, walking, running or playing a sport. Orthotics modify abnormal foot behavior during weight-bearing activities in order to alleviate pain and protect the feet from further damage. By providing support in areas where the foot is weak and by directing its movement, orthotics provide support while helping the foot to function more normally. ...


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Platelet-Rich-Plasma Injections

Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections use components of the body's own blood to stimulate healing. Platelets, which are usually associated with coagulation (clotting), are also, according to recent research, able to assist in mending and strengthening damaged tissue by increasing certain growth factors. During the normal healing process, the body uses platelets to promote new-tissue growth and repair injuries. By supplementing platelet content, the healing process is accelerated. There is ongoing research on the efficacy of PRP injections, and some medical professionals remain skeptical about their value. ...


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Syndactyly

Syndactyly, the webbing of two or more fingers or toes, is the most common congenital malformation of the limbs. The unusual term for this disorder derives its name from the Greek words meaning together, "syn," and digits, "dactyl." The most common presentation of this abnormality is a bonding between the second and third toes. ...


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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of fibrous connective tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot from the heel to the base of the toes. This band normally supports the muscles and the arch of the foot, functioning as a shock absorber, but if, after repeated stretching, it tears, inflammation and severe heel pain, exacerbated by standing or walking, result. Plantar fasciitis is the most frequent cause of heel pain and a common reason for the development of outgrowths of bone, called heel spurs, as well. It is more common in women and tends to occur as people age. ...


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Achilles Tendon Rupture

The Achilles tendon is the strong band of tissue that connects the calf muscle to the heel. If stretched too far, the tendon can tear, or rupture, causing severe pain in the ankle and lower leg that can make it difficult or even impossible to walk. An Achilles tendon rupture, which may be partial or complete, often occurs as a result of repeated stress on the tendon while playing sports such as soccer or basketball. Although frequently resulting from the same stresses that cause Achilles tendonitis, a rupture of the Achilles tendon is a far more serious injury, usually requiring surgical repair. ...


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Podiatric Laser Treatments

Laser surgery is often a successful treatment for lesions, tumors and nail disorders. Laser treatments do not damage tissue in surrounding areas, are often painless, and allow patients to recover quickly. Two common conditions that are successfully treated with laser procedures are toenail fungus and warts. ...


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Adhesive Capsulitis

Adhesive capsulitis, commonly referred to as frozen shoulder, is a common condition that causes pain and stiffness in the shoulder. This condition is the result of a tightening or thickening of the capsule of connective tissue that protects the structures of the shoulder. Although the exact cause of frozen shoulder is unknown, it often occurs after a shoulder injury or shoulder surgery, or as a complication of diabetes. Symptoms of frozen shoulder tend to worsen over time, however, even without treatment, symptoms may resolve on their own in about two years time. ...


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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most commonly injured ligaments in the knee. Running diagonally through the middle of the joint, the ACL works in conjunction with three other ligaments to connect the femur (upper leg bone) to the tibia (the larger of the two lower leg bones). ACL injuries occur most commonly in athletes as a result of direct contact or an awkward fall. About half of ACL injuries are also accompanied by damage to the meniscus, cartilage, bone or other ligaments in the knee, any of which may complicate the repair process. ...


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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

The carpal tunnel is a narrow, fibrous passage in the wrist that protects the median nerve, which runs down the length of arm and through the wrist into the hand. It controls some hand movement, and sensation in the thumb, index and middle fingers, and half of the ring finger. Irritation or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel can cause tingling and numbness in the fingers, a condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). ...


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Elbow Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is a type of surgery that uses an arthroscope, a thin fiber optic camera, to visualize an internal area and confirm a diagnosis. If damage or abnormalities are detected during the arthroscopy, repairs can often be made during the same procedure. Arthroscopy is considered an ideal treatment option for many conditions, since it offers smaller incisions, shorter recovery times and less scarring than traditional open surgery. Patients can often return home the same day as their procedure and resume their regular activities in just a few weeks, while experiencing less pain, greater range of motion and restored joint function. ...


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Herniated Disc

A herniated disc (also called a ruptured or slipped disc) is a damaged "cushion" between two bones in the spine (vertebrae). Normally, the gelatinous discs between the vertebrae hold the bones in place and act as shock absorbers, permitting the spine to bend smoothly. When a disc protrudes beyond its normal parameters, and its tough outer layer of cartilage cracks, the disc is considered "herniated." ...


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Laminectomy

A laminectomy is a surgical procedure to relieve the spinal nerve compression that results from spinal stenosis or a herniated disc. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of one or more areas of the spinal canal. A herniated disc results when a disc, the gelatinous tissue between two vertebrae, protrudes outside the parameters of the spine. Both spinal stenosis and disc herniation result in excessive pressure on adjacent spinal nerves, causing pain, cramping, numbness, tingling or weakness in the neck, shoulders, arms, lower back or legs, depending on where on the spine the problem occurs. Both conditions may result from aging, injury, or arthritic deterioration. ...


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Meniscus Tear

The meniscus is a C-shaped piece of tough cartilage located in the knee, that acts as a shock absorber between the shinbone and the thighbone. There are two minisci within each knee. The meniscus on the inside part of the knee is known as the medial meniscus and the meniscus located on the outside of the knee is referred to as the lateral meniscus. A meniscus tear may be the result of an activity that forcefully twists or rotates the knee. A torn meniscus is a common knee injury that may be caused by playing sports, or a traumatic injury, and most frequently occurs when the knee joint is bent and the knee is then twisted. Torn menisci are common in athletes, but in some cases this condition may occur in older adults whose cartilage has worn away, as a result of many years of wear and tear of the joint. ...


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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

The anterior cruciate ligament, commonly known as the ACL, is one of the most commonly injured ligaments in the knee. Running diagonally through the middle of the joint, the ACL works together with three other ligaments to connect the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (the larger of the two lower leg bones). A tearing of this ligament causes the knee to become unstable and the joint to slide forward. ACL injuries occur most often in athletes as a result of direct contact or an awkward fall. About half of all ACL injuries are also accompanied by damage to the meniscus, cartilage, bone or other ligaments in the knee. ...


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Mini-Incision Total Knee Replacement

A mini-incision total knee replacement, or arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure to replace a damaged, dysfunctional knee joint using minimally invasive techniques. The knee, being a weight-bearing joint, is especially prone to injury and degenerative disease. The knee is a hinge joint where the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) meet. The patella (knee cap) glides over the femur when the knee moves. In a healthy joint, a layer of smooth cartilage cushions the bone ends, working together with muscles, tendons and ligaments to allow the knee to bend easily. ...


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Osteoarthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes pain, stiffness and swelling in the joints. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It develops as the cartilage protecting the bones of a joint wears down over time. Over the years, as stress is put on the joints, cartilage wears thin and sometimes even erodes completely, resulting in stiffness and pain. It occurs more frequently in older individuals, however it sometimes develops in athletes from overuse of a joint or after an injury. It commonly affects the fingers, knees, lower back and hips, and is often treated with medication, specific exercises, and physical therapy. In severe cases, joint replacement surgery may be suggested. Osteoarthritis tends to get worse over time. ...


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Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is a treatment method for improving limited body movement and functionality that are a result of disease, injury or aging. Treatment involves restorative exercises that focus on developing muscle strength, flexibility, balance, posture and coordination, and that provide overall pain relief. Physical therapy is designed to promote a patient's overall health and fitness, prevent reinjury and maximize quality of life. It may be prescribed as an initial form of treatment for certain conditions or injuries, or to restore strength and function after surgery. ...


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Femur Fracture


A broken thighbone, also known as a femur fracture, is a serious and painful injury. The femur is one of the strongest bones in the body, and a break or fracture in the femur bone is often caused by severe injury such as trauma sustained in a motor vehicle accident. Symptoms of a femur fracture include severe pain, swelling, tenderness, physical deformity and often, the inability to walk. Treatment for a femur fracture often includes setting and immobilizing the leg, and in severe cases, surgery may be required to ensure proper healing. ...


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Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

The rotator cuff is the thick band of muscles and associated tendons that cover the top of the upper arm and hold in it place, providing support and stability to the shoulder joint. The rotator cuff also allows for a full range of motion while keeping the ball of the arm bone in the shoulder socket. These tendons can become partially or completely torn as a result of a rotator cuff tear or injury. A rotator cuff tear often occurs as a result of injury or overuse of the muscles over a long period of time. Rotator cuff tears typically involve pain when lifting or lowering the arm, muscle weakness and atrophy, and discomfort at rest, particularly if pressure is placed on the affected shoulder. ...


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Scaphoid Fracture

The scaphoid is a small bone located on the thumb side of the wrist, in the area where the wrist bends. The scaphoid bone is located at the base of the hand, below the thumb tendons. The scaphoid is the most common bone to break or fracture from a wrist injury. A scaphoid fracture is commonly caused by a fall on an outstretched hand, with significant weight landing on the palm. Pain or tenderness in this area can be a sign that the scaphoid has been injured. ...


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Shoulder Arthroplasty

Severe shoulder conditions with persistent symptoms that have not responded to conservative treatments may benefit from shoulder arthroplasty, or shoulder joint replacement surgery. Shoulder arthroplasty is a procedure in which the damaged joint is replaced with an artificial joint that allows patients to enjoy painless motion and resume their regular activities. Joint replacement of the shoulder is not performed as frequently as that of the hip or knee, but it is equally effective in improving a patient's comfort and use of the affected arm. ...


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Sports Medicine

Sports medicine is a subspecialty of orthopaedics that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of injuries suffered during athletic activity. The goal of treatment is to heal and rehabilitate injuries so patients can quickly return to their athletic activities. Participating in sports places wear-and-tear on the body, and can lead to orthopaedic injuries. Athletes are susceptible to injuries that include stress fractures and chronic pain, as well as tearing or stretching of internal structures. Treatment for these conditions can involve surgery, orthotics, physical therapy and rest. ...


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Lateral Epicondylitis

Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is an elbow injury that occurs as a result of the overuse of the muscles and tendons of the forearm and elbow. The pain associated with this condition affects the lateral epicondyle, the area where the tendons of the forearm connect with the bony outer portion of the elbow. Repetitive movement and constant use during certain types of activities may put excessive strain on the elbow tendons. Tennis elbow may occur in tennis players or individuals who participate in certain athletic activities, but may also occur in people who have jobs that involve repetitive motions of the wrist and arm, such as carpenters, or people in construction related trades. ...


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Total Ankle Arthroplasty

Total ankle arthroplasty (total ankle replacement) is a surgical procedure used to relieve pain and restore movement to damaged ankle joints. During a total ankle replacement, the damaged ankle joint is surgically removed and replaced with an artificial replacement joint, which helps restore function and support to the joint. Damage to the ankle joint is commonly caused by injury or age-related degenerative conditions such as arthritis. These injuries tend to get worse over time and can cause severe pain, stiffness, limited range of motion and an eventual loss of function of the ankle. Ankle replacement surgery is one of the most effective treatment options available for severely damaged ankle joints. While it is difficult to restore full function to the ankle, many patients are able to experience a drastic improvement in ankle function after this procedure. ...


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Total Hip Arthroplasty

Total hip arthroplasty is the complete replacement of a damaged hip with a prosthetic one. This surgery is performed to relieve pain and restore function to a hip deteriorated by osteoarthritis, rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis, avascular necrosis, congenital abnormalities or traumatic injury. Total hip arthroplasty involves replacing the entire diseased joint, composed of the natural ball and socket and its protective cartilage. The damaged joint is replaced with a prosthetic hip, usually made of a metal ball and a plastic socket. ...


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Total Hip Resurfacing

Total hip resurfacing is a procedure that may be performed to treat patients who are suffering from advanced arthritis in the hip. During the process, only damaged cartilage is removed and a metal cap is placed over the ball portion of the hip. The procedure is similar to that of hip replacement surgery, but in a hip resurfacing, the femoral head and socket are not removed. Hip resurfacing is typically performed on young patients or patients with medical conditions that preclude full hip replacement surgery. ...


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Joint Reconstruction and Replacement

Because joints are in constant use, they often wear out over time due to overuse or aging. Joint reconstruction or replacement may be required to relieve the resulting pain and restore function. Most joints in the body, including the neck, shoulders, elbows, wrists, hands, hips, knees, ankles and feet, are synovial, permitting movement and articulation. When these joints suffer traumatic injury, or when the cartilage that normally protects them wears away, surgical repair or replacement may be necessary. ...


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Total Knee Arthroplasty

Patients with severe pain and stiffness that does not respond to conservative treatments or more moderate surgery may require total knee arthroplasty, commonly known as knee replacement, to relieve pain and restore function. Whereas in a healthy knee smooth cartilage cushions the connecting bone ends, when osteoarthritis develops, the resulting pain and stiffness that may require surgical intervention. ...


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Trigger Finger

Trigger finger is a common and painful disorder of a finger's flexor tendon that causes the finger to "catch" or "lock" when bent or released (if the thumb is affected, the condition is called "trigger thumb"). Trigger finger can be caused by repetitive motion of the finger, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and gout. Grasping something for an extended period of time can also result in trigger finger. ...


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Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty

Unicondylar knee arthroplasty, also known as partial or unicompartmental knee replacement, is a less invasive alternative to a total knee arthroplasty. Partial knee arthroplasty is designed to replace only the portion of the knee that has been damaged by arthritis, leaving the healthier areas intact. Partial knee replacement allows patients to benefit from less scarring, shorter recovery time and a fuller range of motion. ...


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Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition that causes the bones to become weak and brittle, placing them at a high risk for fracture. In all individuals, bone breaks down over time, but is replaced with new bone tissue. As people age, bone loss occurs at a faster rate than new bone is created, resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the result of increasing bone loss, and is more common in older people, especially women. ...


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Rehabilitation for Medial Collateral Ligament Injury

Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury refers to sprains or tears of a ligament in the knee that normally helps to maintain stability. Such an injury commonly occurs in contact sports as a result of direct impact to the outside of the knee. A medial collateral ligament injury may range in severity from a mild tear to a complete rupture, but is always painful. After the initial rest, ice, compression and elevation (RICE), patients will likely benefit from rehabilitation exercises to restore strength and functionality to the area. ...


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Athlete's Foot

Athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is a common fungal infection that develops in the moist areas between the toes or on the soles of the feet. It causes itching, stinging and burning, and, if left untreated, can cause the skin to peel and crack, which, in turn, can lead to bacterial infection. Athlete's foot can also affect the toenails, palms and fingers. It is caused by a variety of fungi that belong to the group "dermatophyte," which also causes ringworm, diaper rash and jock itch (dhobi itch). ...


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Blisters

A blister, also known as a bulla, is a bubble of fluid that forms beneath a thin layer of damaged skin. The fluid inside is composed of water and protein that have oozed from the damaged tissue. Commonly, blisters form as a result of irritation caused by rubbing, such as that caused by ill-fitting or new shoes. They generally involve only epidermis, the top layer of the skin. Blisters such as these usually resolve on their own fairly quickly, and do not lead to complications or scarring. Blisters may, however, development for a number of other reasons, some of which can be more serious. All blisters should be watched because even seemingly innocuous blisters can become infected easily. ...


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Splint Placement

Injury to a joint can be painful. To determine whether joint pain is being caused by a sprain or fracture and, if so, the nature and extent of the injury, a physical examination is performed, and X-rays or other diagnostic images are taken. If a sprain or fracture is found, the joint may be splinted to keep it immobilized and help it to heal properly. Splints are also applied following certain types of surgery. ...


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Bunions

A bunion (hallux valgus ) is a common foot problem in which an abnormal bony bump develops at the joint of the big toe, causing the joint to swell outward and become painful. As a result of the enlarged joint, the big toe may become stiff and turn inward. The more deformed the joint becomes, the more it can lead to difficulty walking and to the development of ingrown toenails, corns and calluses. Although bunions are not usually a serious condition, they can be painful and unsightly. Left untreated, they will usually grow larger and more painful over time. ...


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Sports Medicine

Sports medicine is a subspecialty of orthopaedics that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of injuries suffered during athletic activity. The goal of treatment is to heal and rehabilitate injuries so patients can quickly return to their athletic activities. Participating in sports places wear-and-tear on the body, and can lead to orthopaedic injuries. Athletes are susceptible to injuries that include stress fractures and chronic pain, as well as tearing or stretching of internal structures. Treatment for these conditions can involve surgery, orthotics, physical therapy and rest. ...


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Claw Foot

Claw foot is so named because of the abnormal appearance of the affected foot. A patient with this condition has a deformity in which the toe joint nearest to the ankle bends upward and the other toes bend downward in a fixed contracture. A claw foot is not necessary harmful and may not require treatment, but it can cause pain, result in development of other troubling disorders, or be a sign of a more serious underlying condition. ...


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Tendonitis

Tendonitis is an inflammation of one of the tendons, the soft flexible cords of tissue that connect muscle to bone. Such inflammations can occur as a result of overuse or traumatic injury. Tendonitis can occur anywhere in the body, but most often occurs in joints such as the shoulder, knee, wrist, ankle and elbow. ...


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Clubfoot

Clubfoot is a common congenital abnormality in which the foot is turned inward. The condition derives its name from the resemblance of the curved foot to the head of a golf club. Clubfoot is an anomaly that can affect one or both feet. It is usually an isolated condition, although it is occasionally associated with other skeletal abnormalities, such as spina bifida. While a clubfoot does not, in itself, cause pain or other symptoms during infancy, the condition must be addressed soon after birth since, left untreated, it can result in serious medical problems once the child begins to walk. ...


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Diabetic Foot Care

Because of their distance from the heart and because of the force of gravity, the feet and legs are more at risk for difficulties with circulation and healing than other parts of the body. In patients with diabetes, these risks are exacerbated by the disease since diabetes can lead to: impaired circulation, nerve damage (neuropathy), and a damaged immune system. Not only is the diabetic patient less able to fight off infection, but is also frequently unaware of injuries because of neuropathy and impaired vision. ...


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Corns and Calluses

Corns and calluses are thickened layers of skin that develop on the feet as a result of the skin protecting itself from friction and pressure. Corns and calluses do not often cause serious medical problems, but they may be painful, especially when walking. Many people are also bothered by the appearance of these growths, as they appear as hard, raised bumps or thick, rough areas of skin. ...


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Flat Feet

Flat feet (pes planus) are extremely common. While usually just a normal anatomical variation that does not result in any serious difficulties, this condition, which causes the feet to lean inward, or pronate, can cause problems over time. Infants feet are naturally flat because of the pad of "baby fat" at the instep. As they grow and begin to walk, their feet normally develop arches. For some children this does not happen and their feet remain flatter than average. While this condition is usually inherited, there are many individuals who have normal arches as children and young adults, but develop flat feet, or "fallen arches," over time. These individuals are said to have acquired flat foot deformity (AFFD). ...


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Foot Sprains and Strains

Both foot sprains and foot strains are very common injuries, occurring as a result of sports accidents, falls, or other traumas. The difference between the two types of injuries is that sprains affect the ligaments, the thick strands of cartilage attaching one bone to another, and strains affect the muscles or the tendons, thick bands attaching muscle to bone. In both cases, the patient with the injury usually experiences pain (particularly upon movement), swelling, tenderness, bruising, weakness or muscle spasms. Foot sprains, the more serious injury, may also cause possible instability of the joint, most frequently the ankle. Depending on where on the foot the injury occurs, patients may be unable to bear weight until healing takes place. ...


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Hallux Rigidus

Hallux rigidus, meaning "stiff big toe," is a type of degenerative arthritis affecting the joint located at the bottom of the big toe (the metatarsophalangeal joint). This condition causes the joint to stiffen and become painful, eventually making it difficult to walk, stand up, bend, squat or run. Hallux rigidus may occur as a result of structural abnormalities, heredity, traumatic injury, or underlying disease conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout. ...


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Hammertoes

A hammertoe is an abnormally crooked, contracted toe that takes the shape of an inverted "V." This condition develops when a muscle or tendon imbalance causes the toe to buckle and eventually become stuck in a bent position. Hammertoes may occur for a number of reasons, including hereditary abnormalities, rheumatoid arthritis, traumatic injury, or the wearing of poorly fitted or high-heeled shoes. ...


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Heel Spurs

A heel spur is an outgrowth of bone, known as a bone spur or osteophyte, on the heel of the foot. Bone spurs form as the body attempts to repair damage caused by constant physical irritation, pressure or stress, and may form in various regions of the body. They develop in the heel for a variety of reasons. In many cases, the long ligament that runs across the bottom of the foot, called the plantar fascia, gets pulled too tightly and an inflammation known as plantar fasciitis results. As the body tries to repair the damage, a heel spur may form. ...


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Ingrown Toenails

Ingrown toenails are toenails that have grown into the skin of the toe, causing pain, swelling and, frequently, infection. Usually, it is the corner of the big toe that is affected by this condition, although the smaller toes can also develop this problem. Ingrown toenails may occur as a result of tight-fitting shoes, a curved growth pattern of the nail itself, an injury, or improper toenail cutting. If left untreated, an ingrown toenail is likely to develop an infection and may even require surgery to remove the nail. ...


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Lisfranc Injury

A Lisfranc injury is a trauma to the midfoot where the Lisfranc (tarsometatarsal) joint is located. This joint enables the articulation of the middle of the foot. A Lisfranc injury may vary in severity, involving a sprain, a torn ligament, a fracture or a dislocation. Lisfranc injuries are relatively rare and frequently misdiagnosed. Lisfranc injuries occur for a number of reasons, all of which involve suffering a crushing blow, falling or twisting the foot. Causes of Lisfranc injuries may include vehicular collisions, falls and sports injuries. ...


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Morton's Neuroma

Morton's neuroma is a painful condition in which excess fibrous tissue accumulates around a nerve in the ball the foot, usually between the third and fourth toes. Patients may experience pain, burning, tingling or numbness in the foot, radiating into the toes, and often report feeling as if they are walking on a pebble. Pain may be soothed by taking weight off the foot or by massaging the area. The pain of Morton's neuroma is likely to worsen over time, becoming more severe and more persistent. The condition is found more frequently in women than in men. ...


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Orthotics

Orthotics are shoe inserts designed to correct the way the foot moves while standing, walking, running or playing a sport. Orthotics modify abnormal foot behavior during weight-bearing activities in order to alleviate pain and protect the feet from further damage. By providing support in areas where the foot is weak and by directing its movement, orthotics provide support while helping the foot to function more normally. ...


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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of fibrous connective tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot from the heel to the base of the toes. This band normally supports the muscles and the arch of the foot, functioning as a shock absorber, but if, after repeated stretching, it tears, inflammation and severe heel pain, exacerbated by standing or walking, result. Plantar fasciitis is the most frequent cause of heel pain and a common reason for the development of outgrowths of bone, called heel spurs, as well. It is more common in women and tends to occur as people age. ...


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Plantar Warts

Plantar warts are noncancerous growths that develop on the soles of the feet. Caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), plantar warts are frequently found on the heels or balls of the feet, areas to which the most pressure is applied during standing or walking. While plantar warts are not a serious health threat, they may cause pain or tenderness and therefore need to be removed. ...


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Rehabilitation for Foot Conditions

Although the methods used to treat foot injuries vary, rehabilitation is always necessary after the initial treatment, to restore full movement and mobility to the foot and ankle and help the patient return to all usual activities. After the foot has healed from the initial treatment and patients can bear weight on the joint, a physical therapy regimen is implemented to strengthen muscles and increase mobility. Rehabilitation often takes three forms: ...


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Sesamoiditis

Sesamoiditis is an inflammation of two small bones, called sesamoids, situated below the first metatarsal joint of the big toe in the ball of the foot. Sesamoids, which are also located elsewhere in the body, are bones that, instead of being connected to other bones by joints, are connected only to tendons or are embedded in muscle. In the big toe, the sesamoids protect the tendons and help stabilize the foot during walking. ...


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Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome, also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, is a disorder of the foot that may result in significant pain. The tarsal tunnel, the canal that runs between the inner ankle and the band of ligaments that stretch across the foot, houses several vital arteries, nerves and tendons, which provide flexibility to the foot. Since the walls of this tunnel consist of either bone or tough fibrous material through which these blood vessels, tendons and nerves have to pass, the inflexibility of the walls may create a problem. ...


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Toe Fracture

A toe fracture, though very painful, is not usually a serious injury. Nonetheless, it must be appropriately treated to ensure proper healing. In most cases, a toe fracture, particularly of one of the small toes, can be treated nonsurgically, frequently by home remedies. At times, however, if the fracture is more severe, greater immobilization or surgery maybe required to prevent permanent damage. ...


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Turf Toe

Turf toe, which is a sprain of the soft tissue in the main joint in the big toe, is a common sports injury. Although it derives its name from the fact that it is frequently suffered by football players who play on artificial turf, it is also a common ailment of wrestlers, gymnasts, soccer players and dancers. Turf toe is usually caused by jamming or pushing the big toe while running or jumping, which results in swelling, pain and limited joint movement at the base of the toe. Typically, the injury to the toe is sudden (a "pop" may be felt), although it sometimes develops gradually after repeated trauma. Turf toe is diagnosed by physical examination. ...


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Mycotic Nail Infections

Mycotic, or fungal, nail infections are very common. Although they can occur on the fingernails, they are more commonly found on the toenails, because fungus grows more readily in warm, dark, moist areas like enclosed shoes. Infected nails appear discolored, thick and brittle and may at times be painful. Mycotic nail infections most frequently appear in adults. ...


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Achilles Tendonitis

Achilles tendonitis (also tendinitis) is an inflammation of the Achilles tendon, the strong band of tissue that connects the calf muscle to the heel. This condition occurs when excessive stress is put on the tendon. Achilles tendonitis is usually a painful but short-lived condition. It not treated, however, Achilles tendonitis can increase the risk of Achilles tendon rupture, a serious injury requiring immediate medical attention. Most cases of Achilles tendonitis can be prevented by beginning an exercise regimen slowly, with preparation, and by increasing an exercise program gradually and with care. ...


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Amputation

Amputation is the removal of a limb or extremity: arm, leg, hand, foot, finger or toe. Amputation is a treatment of last resort, performed only after all other forms of treatment have failed. It is used to treat severe infection, disease progression, removal of a tumor on a bone or muscle, or persistent pain. Before undergoing an amputation, a thorough physical examination is performed to verify that amputation is the only feasible option. The most common type of amputation is removal, either above or below the knee, of the leg. ...


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Ankle Fracture

An ankle fracture, commonly known as a broken ankle, involves any type of break or crack in the tibia, fibula, or talus. Common causes of an ankle fracture may include a sports injury, a motor vehicle accident or a fall. An ankle fracture can include injury to one or more of the bones that make up the ankle joint. The more bones that are broken, the more complicated and severe the fracture is. Treatment for a broken ankle depends on the type and severity of the individual fracture, but may include wearing a cast or brace, applying ice and taking anti-inflammatory medication. Stable fractures can usually heal on their own within a few weeks, while more complicated ones may require surgery to reposition the broken bone. ...


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Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that causes symptoms of arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis affects the lining of the joints, causing pain, stiffness, and swelling. It may also affect other organs of the body including the heart, lungs and blood vessels. Rheumatoid arthritis is more common in women than men and it usually develops in individuals over the age of 40. Treatment focuses on controlling symptoms and preventing joint damage, and commonly includes medication to suppress the immune system and reduce pain and inflammation. ...


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Arthrocentesis

Arthrocentesis, commonly known as joint aspiration, is a minor surgical procedure during which excess synovial fluid (fluid from a joint) is drained with a sterile needle and syringe. Usually performed in the doctor's office, arthrocentesis is administered to provide relief to patients with swelling, inflammation and pain in any joint where there is an excess accumulation of fluid (effusion). Joints typically drained in this way include the shoulder, knee, hip, elbow, wrist or ankle. ...


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Avascular Necrosis

Avascular necrosis, also known as osteonecrosis, is a disorder in which the bone does not receive enough blood, resulting in small breaks that can eventually cause it to collapse. Insufficient blood flow to a bone may occur as a result of a fracture or dislocation, excessive alcohol use, extended use of corticosteroids, or certain diseases that impede blood flow, such as sickle cell anemia, diabetes, lupus, Gaucher disease and HIV. Medications taken for osteoporosis or bone cancer, called bisphosphonates and radiation therapy also increase the risk of a patient developing avascular necrosis. The condition can occur in numerous joints, but it most commonly affects the hip. ...


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Tenodesis

Tenodesis is a surgical procedure that is typically used to treat injuries to the biceps tendon in the shoulder. These injuries may occur due to tendonitis, an inflammation or irritation of a tendon, or from overuse or a trauma to the shoulder area. A tendon is the flexible cord of tissue that connects muscles to bones. Tendon problems may occur anywhere in the body, but are more common in certain joints including the shoulder because of its wide range of motion. A severe tendon injury can lead to a rupturing of the tendon and may require surgery. ...


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Osteomalacia

Osteomalacia, commonly referred to as rickets, is a softening of the bones that may occur as a result of a vitamin D deficiency. Bones affected by osteomalacia lack the proper amount of calcium, resulting in bones that are soft and more likely to fracture. This condition often leads to a dull aching pain in the bones, especially in the hips and lower back, and decreased muscle tone and strength. The main cause of osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency which may be the result of limited exposure to sunlight, a limited diet, stomach surgery, or certain anti-seizure medications. Underlying conditions such as cancer, kidney failure, celiac disease, or liver disorders, may cause nutrient absorption problems that may lead to osteomalacia as well. ...


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Bursitis

Bursitis is a painful inflammation of a bursa, one of the small sacs at the joints that cushion the tendons, muscles and bones. Bursae normally enable fluid movement, but when overtaxed they can inflame and fill with fluid. Once a bursa becomes irritated, gritty and rough, it can create painful friction in the joint. Bursitis usually results either from repetitive stress or sudden injury and presents with swelling, redness and deep, aching pain. The joints most commonly affected by bursitis are the shoulder, elbow, hip and knee. ...


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Calf Muscle Strains

There are two calf muscles located at the back of the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and the soleus. The former is the larger calf muscle, the one creating a visible bulge beneath the skin, and is typically the one injured. These muscles are important, providing strength and stability to both the knee and heel joints. Calf strains are injuries that commonly result when the muscle is stretched, or pulled, beyond its usual limits. For this reason, the injury is frequently referred to as a "pulled" muscle. Calf muscle strains are most common in athletes whose sport requires quick bursts of speed, including running, basketball, soccer and football. ...


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Cartilage Defects of the Knee

Cartilage defects of the knee involve damage to the articular cartilage, the smooth substance that covers the ends of the bones, keeping them from rubbing together. Cartilage defects may be degenerative, resulting from wear and tear, or traumatic, caused by an injury such as falling on the knee, jumping down, or rapidly changing directions while playing a sport. Such injuries do not always produce immediate symptoms because there are no nerves in cartilage. Over time, however, cartilage defects can disrupt normal joint function, leading to pain, inflammation, a grinding sensation in the knee and limited mobility. ...


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Syndactyly

Syndactyly, the webbing of two or more fingers or toes, is the most common congenital malformation of the limbs. The unusual term for this disorder derives its name from the Greek words meaning together, "syn," and digits, "dactyl." The most common presentation of this abnormality is a bonding between the second and third toes. ...


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De Quervain's Tenosynovitis

De Quervain's tenosynovitis is an inflammation of the two tendons that run from the back of thumb and down the side of the wrist. The causes of De Quervain's tenosynovitis are unknown, but it has been linked to wrist injury, overuse/repetitive motion, pregnancy and inflammatory arthritis. It is much more common in women than in men, and in people who have diabetes or arthritis. The disease was first identified in 1895 by Fritz de Quervain, after whom it is named. ...


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Dupuytren's Contracture

Dupuytren's contracture is a rare hand disorder caused by a thickening of the layer of fibrous tissue beneath the skin of the palm and the finger(s). This thickening causes tendons to tighten (contract), which makes the finger difficult to extend. As a result, the finger is continually "curled up." Although more common in men than women, the cause of Dupuytren's contracture is unknown. However, people who get the condition tend to drink significant amounts of alcohol; have diabetes; smoke; or have seizures similar to those from epilepsy. ...


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Enthesopathy

Enthesopathy is a disorder of the entheses, which are the connective tissues between bones and tendons or ligaments. Enthesopathy occurs when these tissues have been damaged, due to overuse, injury or infection. It may also be caused by an inflammatory condition such as psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, sarcoidosis, or gout. Some research indicates that enthesopathy may develop as a result of an autoimmune disorder. Enthesopathy may develop in various parts of the body, including the shoulders, hips, elbows, wrists, knees, heels or feet. This condition is typically found in individuals over the age of 50, and is usually characterized by symptoms of severe pain and inflammation. ...


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Epidural Steroid Injections

By reducing inflammation, epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are used to temporarily relieve lumbar (lower back), cervical (neck), thoracic (mid-spine) and sciatic-nerve pain. ESIs contain cortisone and an anesthetic, and are delivered directly to the epidural space, which is the area between the spinal cord and the outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord (the dura). As a result, they provide more effective and faster pain relief than oral medications. ...


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Femur Fracture


A broken thighbone, also known as a femur fracture, is a serious and painful injury. The femur is one of the strongest bones in the body, and a break or fracture in the femur bone is often caused by severe injury such as trauma sustained in a motor vehicle accident. Symptoms of a femur fracture include severe pain, swelling, tenderness, physical deformity and often, the inability to walk. Treatment for a femur fracture often includes setting and immobilizing the leg, and in severe cases, surgery may be required to ensure proper healing. ...


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Gait Analysis

Gait analysis is an assessment of the way the body moves, usually by walking or running, from one place to another. The purpose of gait analysis is to detect any abnormalities in locomotion. An individual's gait is a combination of complex functions involving use of the body's visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems. Problems within any of these systems, as well as problems in the joints involved, can lead to postural and gait abnormalities. ...


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Ganglion Cyst

A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled sac that usually forms on top of a tendon or the covering of a joint in the wrist or hand. It is the most common type of soft-tissue growth in the wrist or hand, and can develop suddenly or over time. Although usually benign and harmless, it can put pressure on nearby nerves, potentially causing pain, weakness or numbness. The cause of a ganglion cyst is unknown, although it tends to occur in people who have osteoarthritis, and in women between the ages of 25 and 45. They often develop when the soft sheath around a tendon or joint swells and fills with mucus. ...


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Arthroscopic Hamstring Repair

The three hamstring muscles, located behind the thigh, attach to leg bones, allowing the knee to bend. Strains to the hamstrings are common, especially during vigorous sports activities involving running and jumping. Such injuries, whether they involve just over-stretching or an actual tear, can be painful and debilitating. Partial tears sometimes respond well to conservative methods of treatment, including rest and splinting because, as scar tissue forms during healing, it forms a kind of bridge, reconnecting muscle to bone. ...


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Cervical Hardware Removal

At present there is some debate about whether to remove hardware that has been used in previous cervical surgeries. While clearly it is not a good idea to have unnecessary hardware remain inside a patient, removing the materials can cause complications, particularly since scar tissue will have grown around the surgical site. Recently, a new evaluative tool, known as electrodiagnostic functional assessment, has become available. This assessment method combines electromyography (EMG), functional capacity evaluation (FCE), and range of motion (ROM) measurement to provide important data so that an informed decision can be made about whether hardware removal is necessary in an individual case. ...


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Facet-Joint Injections

Facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool for determining whether facet-joint inflammation is a source of pain. Four facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered into either the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting steroid and a local anesthetic. ...


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Joint Reconstruction and Replacement

Because joints are in constant use, they often wear out over time due to overuse or aging. Joint reconstruction or replacement may be required to relieve the resulting pain and restore function. Most joints in the body, including the neck, shoulders, elbows, wrists, hands, hips, knees, ankles and feet, are synovial, permitting movement and articulation. When these joints suffer traumatic injury, or when the cartilage that normally protects them wears away, surgical repair or replacement may be necessary. ...


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Manipulation Under Anesthesia

Manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) is a noninvasive procedure to treat chronic pain unmanageable by other methods. MUA is designed not only to relieve pain, but also to break up excessive scar tissue. Scar tissue frequently builds up after orthopedic surgery, impeding movement of soft tissue and joints, so MUA is a valuable in re-establishing optimal range of motion. The patient normally goes through a series of examinations, including imaging tests and laboratory work, before undergoing MUA. These tests are necessary to precisely identify the targeted area and to ensure the patient's ability to benefit from the procedure. MUA may be performed by a number of different types of medical professionals, but only those who have studied MUA and received certification in the technique. ...


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Myositis

Myositis is a rare autoimmune disease that causes muscles to become swollen and inflamed. This disorder affects the voluntary muscles of the body that consciously control movement. Myositis may develop slowly over time and can range in severity from mild to severe. Myositis causes progressive weakness and inflammation in muscles throughout the body and can affect adults and children. ...


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Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis is an infection in a bone. Osteomyelitis is caused by an infection that develops in the bone or spreads to the bone from another area, and may result in the formation of an abscess in the bone that blocks blood supply. In children, this condition commonly affects the long bones of the arms or legs and it is more common in the bones of the spine or hips in adults. Most cases of osteomyelitis are caused by germs or the staphylococcus bacteria, that has spread from infected skin, muscles or tendons. Bacteria may be transmitted from another part of the body to the bones, through the blood. ...


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Osteopenia

Osteopenia is a condition characterized by low bone mass. Although not as low as osteoporosis, osteopenia is the result of a loss of calcium and minerals from the bones. If too many minerals are lost, bones become more porous, brittle and considerably weak. Individuals with osteopenia usually do not experience any symptoms, however they may be at risk for eventually developing osteoporosis and may have a have a higher risk of bone fractures. Osteopenia becomes more common as people age, and women are more likely to develop osteopenia than men. ...


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Platelet-Rich-Plasma Injections

Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections use components of the body's own blood to stimulate healing. Platelets, which are usually associated with coagulation (clotting), are also, according to recent research, able to assist in mending and strengthening damaged tissue by increasing certain growth factors. During the normal healing process, the body uses platelets to promote new-tissue growth and repair injuries. By supplementing platelet content, the healing process is accelerated. There is ongoing research on the efficacy of PRP injections, and some medical professionals remain skeptical about their value. ...


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Pseudogout

Pseudogout is a condition in which salt crystals form in the joints, causing bouts of arthritis, swelling and pain. Also known as calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, pseudogout was named for its similarity to the condition of gout. Both conditions cause similar symptoms, however the causes of these conditions may differ and the salt crystals are formed by the production of different substances within the body. While the salt crystals formed by gout are the result of an overproduction of uric acid or monosodium urate, the salt crystals formed by pseudogout are made up of calcium pyrophosphate. ...


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Quadriceps Tendon Tear

The quadriceps tendon attaches the quadricep muscles to the patella bone in the lower, front part of the thigh, just above the knee. These muscles, tendons and bones work together to help straighten the knee. A quadriceps tear is a serious injury that can cause loss of knee function. The quadriceps tendon may become inflamed and eventually tear from athletic activity that strains the tendons, such as running, bicycling and dancing. Jumping activities, such as playing basketball, may put an athlete at a higher risk of a quadriceps tear, as landing puts immense strain on the quadriceps tendon. Quadriceps tendon tears can also be caused by falls or direct force to the front of the knee. Although a quadriceps tendon tear may occur at any age, it is more common in middle-aged individuals who are physically active. ...


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Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, sometimes referred to as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is an autoimmune disorder that causes symptoms of arthritis in children. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis affects the lining of the joints and commonly affects children under the age of 16, causing pain, stiffness and swelling in the joints. Symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis may come and go, and may last for a short time or for years. This condition may lead to growth problems and eye inflammation in some children. ...


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Shoulder Instability

Shoulder instability is a condition characterized by a loose shoulder joint, caused by weakened and stretched surrounding muscles and ligaments. This may become a chronic condition after a dislocation, which occurs when the ball of the upper arm bone comes out of the socket. Chronic instability may produce frequent slipping, or partial dislocation, known as subluxation. ...


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Splint Placement

Injury to a joint can be painful. To determine whether joint pain is being caused by a sprain or fracture and, if so, the nature and extent of the injury, a physical examination is performed, and X-rays or other diagnostic images are taken. If a sprain or fracture is found, the joint may be splinted to keep it immobilized and help it to heal properly. Splints are also applied following certain types of surgery. ...


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Still's Disease

Still's disease is a form of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis that affects children. The exact cause of Still's disease is unknown, yet it is believed to be the result of an immune disorder, in which the immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues. Another theory is that the inflammation caused by Still's disease may be the result of an infection. ...


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Stress Fractures

A stress fracture is a very thin crack in a bone that can result from repetitive stress. Playing sports or performing other activities that put repeated pressure on bones are often causes of stress fractures. Although they can happen to anyone, stress fractures are more common in athletes such as runners, dancers, gymnasts, and basketball or tennis players. Stress fractures can also be caused by diseases that weaken bones. ...


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Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) refers to a group of related disorders that result from problems with the jaw or jaw joint, or the facial muscles involved in jaw movement. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the small joint located in front of the ear where the skull and lower jaw meet; it enables the jaw to move and function normally, and is one of the body's most frequently used joints. Talking, yawning, chewing and swallowing all involve the TMJ. For the TMJ to function properly, the muscles, ligaments and bones involved in its movement must be working properly; any conditions that prevent them from doing so may cause TMD. ...


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Tendonitis

Tendonitis is an inflammation of one of the tendons, the soft flexible cords of tissue that connect muscle to bone. Such inflammations can occur as a result of overuse or traumatic injury. Tendonitis can occur anywhere in the body, but most often occurs in joints such as the shoulder, knee, wrist, ankle and elbow. ...


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Tibial Plateau Fracture

The tibial plateau is the top surface of the tibia, or shin bone, made of cancellous, or cartilage-like bone. A tibial plateau fracture is often the result of a fall, or a sports-related or a traumatic injury. Fractures that involve the tibial plateau often occur when an injury pushes the lower end of the thighbone (femur) into the soft bone of the tibial plateau, causing the soft cancellous bone to compress and remain sunken. A fracture may also cause the bone to break into two or several pieces. An injury to the tibial plateau is especially distressing on the body, as the majority of standing body weight rests on this bone. Fractures of the tibial plateau affect the alignment, stability and movement of the knee. ...


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Triceps Injuries

The triceps muscle, which allows the arm to straighten, runs from the shoulder to the elbow. It is attached to the adjacent bones by a large tendon. Damage to this muscle or tendon are know as triceps injuries. Complications from triceps injuries are uncommon, with most injuries healing on their own, as long as the triceps is rested for a sufficient period of time. ...


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Whiplash

Whiplash is a common neck condition that occurs as a result of a sudden backwards-forwards motion of the head, often associated with car accidents. This type of injury can stretch the muscles and ligaments as the neck moves out of its normal range of motion. Women are more likely to experience whiplash than men, presumably because men's necks are usually stronger. ...


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Workers' Compensation

Workers' Compensation is a federal program designed to cover costs for employees whose ability to work is compromised by an injury at the workplace or an occupational disease. Employees receive workers' compensation in exchange for relinquishing their right to sue their employer for negligence, an agreement known as "the compensation bargain." ...


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Total Wrist Replacement

Total wrist replacement (wrist arthroplasty) is performed when arthritis pain is severe, and has not responded to other treatments. Both rheumatoid and osteoarthritis cause pain, and both can affect finger and hand strength, making it difficult to pinch or grip. The primary candidate for wrist replacement has severe arthritis, but does not place significant stress on the wrist. ...


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On-Site X-rays

X-rays are imaging tests that produce images of the structures inside the body. X-rays use a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves to produce these internal images. As these waves penetrate the body, they are absorbed in different amounts by different body tissues. Bones are dense and absorb X-ray waves very well and the images appear very clearly, but soft tissues do not absorb the X-rays as well and are therefore harder to see on an X-ray image. Often used to confirm a fracture or a break in a bone, X-rays may be used to investigate lung conditions, digestive tract problems, arthritis, heart failure, breast cancer and other conditions. ...


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